nml-logo-01-1024x1024-e1467653480645-696x407-1


Good Contents Are Everywhere, But Here, We Deliver The Best of The Best.Please Hold on!
Your address will show here +12 34 56 78
Graphene

SPIE—the international society for optics and photonics—has been a society set up to advance light-based technologies since 1955. In this role, it has offered its members conferences, news services and a range of different avenues for exchanging information on this quickly developing field.

As evidence of its commitment to staying ahead of the latest science and technologies in photonics and optics, SPIE has been offering conferences on the topic of graphene since 2009. SPIE has identified graphene and other two-dimensional materials as a key area of interest for its members because of the properties these new materials are offering in the field.

The Graphene Council certainly shares in SPIE’s interest in how two-dimensional materials, including graphene, will play a key role in optoelectronics and photonics, with our frequent coverage of these two fields. 

Now that SPIE has become one of our Corporate Members we took the opportunity to speak to Robert F. Hainsey, Ph.D., the Director of Science and Technology for SPIE to ask him about the role graphene is positioned to play in optics and photonics, how the market is developing and the role of SPIE as these developments evolve.

Q: Graphene has exhibited a number of appealing properties for applications within photonics and optoelectronics, so it’s clear to see why SPIE would become involved with the topic. But could you tell us a little bit about the evolution of how SPIE started getting involved in the topic of graphene? 

A:  SPIE has a long history of supporting the topic of graphene having launched a volunteer-inspired conference at our Optics + Photonics event held annually in San Diego as early as 2009.  The topic appears in a number of other SPIE conferences as well.  In 2014, Frank Koppens of ICFO delivered an excellent plenary talk on the subject at our Photonics Europe event in Brussels, and this led, in turn, to Frank Koppens and Nathalie Vermeulen of the B-PHOT team at Vrije Universiteit Brussel organizing and chairing a full-day workshop at this year’s Photonic Europe event on applications and commercialization of graphene.  We continue to look for methods to enable the community to best share results and exchange ideas in this rapidly evolving field.

Q: How is SPIE now approaching the topic, i.e. what sort of mediums are you using to get the message out about graphene? How do you see this information serving your members? 

A:  The information is disseminated in a number of ways.  Primary among these methods are our conferences which enable researchers to share and discuss the latest findings in the area of graphene and similar materials.  The work shared in those conferences is then packaged into proceedings and made part of the SPIE Digital Library so as to share the results with a wider audience.  We also have our journals where researchers can publish their results in a peer-reviewed medium.  The “SPIE Professional” magazine, the quarterly magazine for our members, has included articles in this area including one written by Frank Koppens earlier this year.  Naturally, we share news about graphene research on our News Room webpage, via Twitter and through our LinkedIn groups.  In terms of serving our members, we hope that this diverse set of methods of sharing information keeps our members informed on the latest work in the field and stimulates discussion among researchers to advance the field.

Q: There are a number of different applications within photonic and optoelectronics in which graphene has exhibited promise. In one of your more recent conferences on graphene, communication applications were identified as the most near-term. Has SPIE begun to get a better feel of how graphene applications within photonics and optoelectronics are developing commercially? And could you give us an outline of that development? 

A:  The workshop you refer to is a positive step towards moving graphene along the commercialization pipeline.  This workshop served to bring together academic and industrial researchers as well as entrepreneurs and start-up companies to discuss what is needed to move graphene from a laboratory to a production setting.  A look at the program for that event illustrates that large enterprises are investing in the research.  In addition, more start-up’s are appearing on the scene at various positions of the value chain.  Progress is being made on the road to full-scale production but there is still work to be done.

Q: Is SPIE involved with any of the standards bodies that are attempting to create industry standards for the material? Whether you are involved or not, does SPIE have a position on the role of materials standards as the material becomes increasingly commercialized?

A:  At this point we are not actively engaged in the work on developing standards outside of the presentations given in our conferences.  That said, one sign of research maturing and preparing to transition to a production environment is the discussion and adoption of standards.  Standards are oftentimes crucial since they provide a baseline for methods and performance by which the industry can determine capability and map progress.  SPIE supports standards development in other areas through methods such as providing meeting space for standards bodies at our events.  We would welcome dialogue with standards bodies in this area to determine if there is a way SPIE can more actively support that work.

Q: How do you see SPIE’s role in graphene education and providing information evolving as the field moves from the lab to the fab? Does the approach to disseminating information on a topic change as it moves from research to commercial interests? 

A:  Certainly the topic will continue to be a vibrant one in our conferences, our proceedings, the SPIE Digital Library, and our social media outlets.  SPIE events also include a set of industry sessions containing presentations, panel discussions, and networking opportunities focused on the commercial aspects of optics and photonics technologies.  This combination of conferences, publications, and industry sessions positions SPIE events to track the migration of the technology as it matures.  The flexibility we have within our events to include unique offerings such as the dedicated workshop on graphene commercialization at the SPIE Photonics Europe event earlier this year allows SPIE to tailor the forum to best serve the community.

Q: How does partnering with groups, such as The Graphene Council, help or contribute to your strategy in education and providing information on the topic of graphene?

A:  SPIE is an organization dedicated to serving the optics and photonics community.  Partnering with other organizations to further the sharing of information and enhancing the discussion around technologies not only helps SPIE meet its charter but, more importantly, enables the advancement of research, science, engineering and practical applications in these technologies.

from Graphene Community Updates http://ift.tt/2dVfzcC



from Featured – Graphene Entrepreneur http://ift.tt/2dOTBZd
0

Graphene





I love LED research and it looks like Graphene Flagship is hitting its research out of the proverbial park. They’ve created an all-electrical quantum LED with single-photon emission. The LEDs are atomically thin and have potential as on-chip photon sources that can be used in quantum information apps.

Graphene Flagship researchers used layers that included transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), graphene, and boron nitride to build the thin LEDs that can be used in quantum communications and network applications. The research was reported in Nature Communications, and was led by the University of Cambridge, UK.
According to the paper, “The diverse materials are layered forming a heterostructure. As electrical current is injected into the device, electrons tunnel from single-layer graphene, through few-layer boron nitride acting as a tunnel barrier, and into the mono- or bi-layer TMD material, such as tungsten diselenide (WSe2), where electrons recombine with holes to emit single photons. At high currents, this recombination occurs across the whole surface of the device, while at low currents, the quantum behaviour is apparent and the recombination is concentrated in highly localised quantum emitters.”

While quantum communication is still a way off, the research brings it closer. According to Professor Mete Atatüre at the Cavendish Laboratory at the Univesity of Cambridge, co-author of the paper, “Ultimately, in a scalable circuit, we need fully integrated devices that we can control by electrical impulses, instead of a laser that focuses on different segments of an integrated circuit. For quantum communication with single photons, and quantum networks between different nodes — for example, to couple qubits — we want to be able to just drive current, and get light out. There are many emitters that are optically excitable, but only a handful are electrically driven.”


This composite image shows an isolated bright spot that corresponds to a quantum emitter generating a stream of single photons. Credit: Mete Atatüre

The research complements other recent research, for example, quantum dots were discovered to exist in layered TMDs in 2015. Stable quantum emitters at the edges of WSe2 monolayers that showed highly localized photoluminescence with single-photon emission characteristics were also discovered. Quantum emitters may possibly supplant research into the more traditional quantum dot counterparts because of the benefits of the ultra-thin devices of layered structures.

According to the researchers, this is just the beginning regarding possible applications that will come out of the combination of graphene and other insulating, semiconducting, superconducting, or metallic layered materials. Expect more in the near future on the subject from a variety of researchers tackling the challenge.

from Electronics EETimes http://ift.tt/2dN6s9A



from Featured – Graphene Entrepreneur http://ift.tt/2d5AVBC
0

Graphene

When we conducted our survey of more than 400 graphene researchers, developers, producers and users earlier this year, less than 10% thought that graphene was a sustainable commercial market today. However, almost 2/3’s felt that graphene would develop into a sustainable commercial market in 6 years or less. (Survey 2016)

 

Based on the feedback and discussions at the Graphene Canada 2016 conference held in Montreal recently, graphene commercialization is a lot closer than most people are aware. 

 

Because graphene has properties that can be applied to such a wide range of potential applications, it is not always easy to see where this material is already being used or where development is most advanced. 

 

A graphene “killer application”?

 

There has been a lot of hype around graphene because of its superlative properties and the promise it holds for radical or revolutionary new applications, products and solutions.

 

There has been an equal measure of disappointment that it has not yet produced a “killer application”, a solution that solves a major problem that is possible because of graphene’s unique properties. 

 

The less sexy, but much more likely path to successful commercialization of graphene, lies in its use in more traditional materials like composites, thermosets (such as epoxies, polyurethane and polyester) and plastics. 

 

For example, Huntsman Advanced Materials (a division of the Huntsman Corporation, a publicly traded global manufacturer and marketer of differentiated chemicals with $10 billion in revenues) is working with graphene specialist firm Haydale to develop graphene enhanced ARALDITE® resins for composite applications. These products are used in the industrial composites, automotive and aerospace markets.

 

 

Huntsman’s ARALDITE® resins are being enhanced using Haydale’s expertise in functionalisation of Graphene Nano Platelets (GNP’S) and other nano materials to create highly loaded master batches and to improve thermal / electrical conductivity and mechanical performance. The ultimate objective of the collaboration will be to commercialise graphene enhanced ARALDITE® resins for a range of applications in the

composites market.

 

It is telling that Huntsman, a company whose chemical products number in the thousands and are sold worldwide, has identified graphene as a critical new additive to enhance one of their most important industrial products. 

 

The global polymer market alone is worth at least $658 billion. Even if only a small percentage of this market begins using graphene as a standard additive to improve product performance, it will help support a viable market for graphene producers and formulators. 

 

Better Together

 

Additive Manufacturing, or 3D Printing, is a relatively new and exciting area of activity that is revolutionizing how objects are designed, prototyped and made. It is also a perfect example of how graphene can be used in combination with other traditional materials to create new capabilities and products. 

 

There are already three companies that offer graphene impregnated 3D printing filaments (Haydale, Graphene 3d Labs and Directa Plus) that are in turn letting creative designers develop products that are electrically conductive or that have superior physical properties (stronger, scratch resistant, better UV protections, etc.). 

 

Graphene is added to traditional polymers, paints and coatings to change their performance characteristics. Another company, NanoXplore is producing products as far ranging as specialty paints to fishing buoys (floats that are used in conjunction with fishing nets, crab pots, and related applications) that use graphene to make these products more robust and survivable in very harsh marine environments. 

 

 

What is unique about graphene is that it can make a significant improvement with very small loadings (as little as 1% or less) as compared to competing materials that may require as much as 25-30% loads to make significant performance differences. 

 

What this means is that although graphene materials are currently quite expensive per gram or kilogram, the very low loading levels makes graphene a competitive additive on a cost / benefit basis. 

 

The Future

 

It is difficult to overstate the enormous potential graphene holds to impact an almost unlimited range of industrial sectors, from water treatment to aerospace, from opto-electrical sensors to energy storage, from bio-medical applications to basic materials. 

 

The pace of development in each of these sectors will advance at different rates and we should not expect to see graphene adopted across all sectors at the same time. 

 

So while university scientists and corporate research and development departments around the world continue to work on the more complicated problems where graphene might disrupt industries like semi-conductors or new generation photocells, graphene is proving its worth in somewhat mundane but equally important industrial materials applications. 


from Graphene Community Updates http://bit.ly/2epTK40



from Featured – Graphene Entrepreneur http://ift.tt/2dKAwF9
0

Graphene

A team of researchers with École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland has introduced a new vibrational mode called a relaxon to the field of heat conduction theory to describe the way heat flows through some crystals. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review X, the team describes their new model and how well it worked when testing it with two particular crystals.

from Phys.org – latest science and technology news stories http://bit.ly/2dUkzJP



from Featured – Graphene Entrepreneur http://ift.tt/2f3Ohk4
0

Graphene

A team of researchers with École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland has introduced a new vibrational mode called a relaxon to the field of heat conduction theory to describe the way heat flows through some crystals. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review X, the team describes their new model and how well it worked when testing it with two particular crystals.

from Phys.org – latest science and technology news stories http://bit.ly/2dUkzJP



from Featured – Graphene Entrepreneur http://ift.tt/2f3Ohk4
0

Graphene

A team of researchers with École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland has introduced a new vibrational mode called a relaxon to the field of heat conduction theory to describe the way heat flows through some crystals. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review X, the team describes their new model and how well it worked when testing it with two particular crystals.

from Phys.org – latest science and technology news stories http://bit.ly/2dUkzJP



from Featured – Graphene Entrepreneur http://ift.tt/2f3Ohk4
0

NO OLD POSTSPage 2 of 2NEXT POSTS